History of The Present- Critical race theory

  • 2022– Historically black colleges received bomb threats

  • On this day February 1st, 2022, which was the first day of Black History Month. There were 57 historically black colleges affected on this day. Most of these historically black colleges were in the south area. Some of these historically black colleges were Xavier University of Louisiana, Spelman College, Fort Valley University, Mississippi Valley State University, and Jackson State University. Nothing warranted these threats but these threats have a clear reflection of how the education system has failed Black America. How? The fact that similar race incidents can happen nearly 100 years after which was the bombing of black Wallstreet illustrates the failure of the American education system as it reproduces and allows for harmful racist beliefs to exist and continue to harm others. This shows the need for critical race theory and as critical race theory provides the analysis of this very thing. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it makes me feel that various white people still to this day don’t want black people to succeed. In a sense, this is a way for white people to stop black people from advancing in this world which is educational opportunities. 

  • 2022– Republican legislators banned the teaching of critical race theory and anything revolving around race (in specific states)

  • There have been more bills introduced by Republican state lawmakers who are trying to restrain teachers from teaching about race, sexist ideas, and other conflicts of systemic inequalities that people may face in the classroom. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it is evident to me that people who are in power continue to not give or even want to give equality to everyone. Isn’t the purpose of schools to educate? If topics about racism, sexism, and other systemic inequalities aren’t discussed in the classroom then no one will be informed about real-life conflicts. Which, this will lead to people having a false viewpoint of specific topics. Who’s the blame? The higher-up political people are supposed to encourage and lead. Also, it shows that our education system isn’t necessarily a reflection of reality. While even currently it presents an inaccurate representation of history. Therefore, the efforts in not discussing these various topics only will make the problems worst. Republican legislators are trying to ban the analysis that the critical race theory offers.


    • 2021– Report released that show disproportionate incarceration of African Americans

    • This event is a report that was released to the public about how African Americans are incarcerated way more than white people. The report shows the record for incarceration for African Americans, Latinx, and white people. It shows where the incarceration happens in each state, provides accommodations for amend, and some possible contributing factors to the ethnic and racial discrepancy in captivity. The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons says, “This report details our observations of staggering disparities among Black and Latinx people imprisoned in the United States given their overall representation in the general population. The latest available data regarding people sentenced to state prison reveal that Black Americans are imprisoned at a rate that is roughly five times the rate of white Americans. During the present era of criminal justice reform, not enough emphasis has been focused on ending racial and ethnic disparities systemwide” (Nellis, Ashley). Evident in today’s society the end result of mass incarceration has occurred from policies created by the white dominant culture that constantly strives to conquer others. The findings of this report adds to my thoughts about the educational system being flawed and needing some work. Clearly, the education system isn’t educating people about this important disparity that is happening currently that is targeting African Americans. I think the educational system could do a better job with informing people about this very topic. Even from my own personal experience, I was never informed about this disparity. From learning about this, I wouldn’t be surprised if there were many more disparities out there that should be well known and improved. Critical race theory has a specific analysis on law and criminal institutions and this report explores the specific disparities of incarceration.

  • 2020– Pandemic covid-19 educational disparities

  • This is a time period that we all are most familiar with. It is a time when the outbreak of covid-19, which is a disease that makes people sick, has put a hold on people’s daily life. As many know, in-person classes were canceled due to the pandemic. These classes were forced to proceed virtually. The pandemic revealed disparities in resources of education. There were limited resources available to various people in the society,, especially Black, Hispanic, and low-income families. According to How COVID taught America about inequity in education, “The report also makes clear the degree of racial and economic digital inequality. Black and Hispanic households with school-aged children were 1.3 to 1.4 times as likely as white ones to face limited access to computers and the internet, and more than two in five low-income households had only limited access. It’s a problem that could have far-reaching consequences given that young students of color are much more likely to live in remote-only districts” (Simon, Clea). This quote highlights the fact that the pandemic disrupted Black and Hispanic households. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it shows how much many people rely on it. Not only in a literal sense to educate, but also a place to call home. For example, the food and shelter that it has to offer to various students is something that comes beneficial. Clearly, seen during the pandemic this resource was taken away from countless people. Critical race theory ties into a factor of this because the fact that critical race theory involves white over black involving material social relations which is proven through the disparities that has arisen from the pandemic of covid.

  • 2020– George Floyd was murdered by police

  • On May 25, 2020, A man named George Floyd was murdered by a white Minneapolis police officer named Derek Chauvin. George Floyd was innocent in this specific event where a racist white man kneeled on his neck for about 10 minutes which led to the death of George Floyd. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because through education, you can see a clear relation to how police were originally slave patrols. This means that this is an inherently racist institution. Many don’t know this because it isn’t taught in the educational system and since there are many factors and influences that try to prevent teaching these types of things, this is the result of it. If accurate representation is taught within the educational curriculum, we can all be better equipped to work for social change and prevent racism that takes people’s lives. Critical race theory highlights the systemic racist police institution that disproportionately targets black people.

  • 2020– Former President Trump gives a speech on the Fourth of July

  • This event is a speech given by former President Donald Trump who feels as though teachers are promoting liberal viewpoints in their classrooms. In addition, teachers are also instructing students to ‘hate their country’. Just this incident itself projects the ideals against the public education system. Somewhat of the public education system is trying to give efforts into informing about countless systemic and historical inequalities that our society has/have faced. Furthermore, one of the supposedly biggest influencers in our society is trying to rebuttal this very thing. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it confides in my thoughts of not understanding the accurate historical history of marginalized groups just because of what he said. It is an example of how the white power structure attempts to influence all oppressed groups. Donald Trump is a product of the racism that resides in our institution that critical race theory explains.

  • 2015-Charleston church shooting

    On Wednesday, June 17th, 2015 near the time of 9:05pm at Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal church a shooting occurred. This church is located in Charleston, South Carolina. There was a white supremacist man named Dylann Roof who killed nine people who were in this church. He even killed the state senator of South Carolina and the senior priest of the church during a prayer service. This shooting actually promoted the South Carolina Assembly to remove the Confederate flag from state capitol premises. Furthermore, it motivated the Black Lives Matter movement as well. Additionally, it highly increased the advertence of terrorism in the United States and racial violence specifically against African Americans. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it shows me that this is what happens when you live in a country that doesn’t try to fight against white supremacy. A white supremacist was miss educated about anti-racist actions which led to something like this happening. Obviously, what he did was morally wrong but was he educated on anti-racist behavior? The action that was performed in this event was racist. Therefore, critical race theory says racism is an inherent part of American culture. This is seen evident in this specific event.

  • 2013 – Black Lives Matter was founded after Trayvon Martin is killed 

    This event is a social movement that began in July of 2013. It is used as a hashtag and a phrase to emphasize discrimination, racism, and inequalities that many African Americans lives face each and every day. The event of Trayvon Martin’s death is an unarmed 17-year-old boy who was shot by a man named George Zimmerman. These events contribute to my understanding of the present educational system because it exhibits that the education system is trying to give efforts in educating about social justice issues. Some institutions are trying to incorporate the black lives matter movement within their teachings in schools. In which, this demonstrates how the educational system is because in a sense, the black lives matter movement is an educational system. I say this because it is working to educate others about the inequalities that exist within the society which would be similar to a school where knowledge is spread. Some people are pushing for justice and inequality which has to be in education. Black lives matter has a very similar analysis to critical race theory where it studies racist ideals of many institutions.

  • 1995– Critical race theory introduced to the field of education

    Critical race theory is a concept in education that educates people about racism and race in many different institutions. Critical race theory was introduced to the field of law in the 1970s. Later, Gloria Ladson Billings and William F Tate IV brung the idea of critical race theory to the field of education with an article named Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it makes me believe that there is some hope for change in the world. However, the fact that the idea of critical race theory isn’t very known by many people also alarms me. Critical Race theory isn’t taught in Michigan schools, so why is it such a hot topic? it says, “While being in the education field for 30 years, critical race theory has primarily stayed in college and university discussions and is still not a widely known theory. Carter-Andrews said that even most teachers didn’t learn the theory in their teacher preparation program.”If they studied it while they were in college, it might inform the way they teach, but they’re not teaching the theory to students,” Carter-Andrews said” (Burr, Alyssa). This quote clearly shows the fact that critical race theory isn’t taught in schools therefore many people are uneducated about this very thing. Even from my own personal experience, I never knew or even heard of critical race theory until recently in my life. There has been a fear created within the society that critical race theory paints the dominant group as villains and the other people as victims. Therefore, some people believe that this will lead to a dividend in society if this theory is taught. With this being said, this leads to the idea in the current present that Republican legislators are trying to ban this important topic from being discussed. However, this thesis is something that needs to be discussed due to all the inequalities that still exist today. 

  • 1991– Beaten by LAPD officers (Rodney King) 

    This event consists of a man named Rodney King being beaten by LAPD officers on March 3, 1991. He was pulled over by the police because he was caught speeding on the highway. These police officers were indeed white individuals. The LAPD and other police officers in a helicopter followed Rodney until he eventually stopped. Rodney was intoxicated when he got pulled over by the police. The police officers asked Rodney and the other people who were in the car to step out and lay flat on the ground. The other people complied with what the officers asked but Rodney was hesitant. Rodney did not lay flat on the ground, instead he kneeled and the officers were forcing him to get down. Rodney refused to obey the white officers and the officers proceeded in tasering him and later beating him. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it shows how the education system, at least from my previous experience, isn’t being taught this important event. I have never learned or even heard about this event in school. I learned about this event from social media and it alerts me in a way that why isn’t this discussed in schools? It makes me question why police brutality isn’t discussed in all schools, rather its public, private, charter, or a voucher institution. This event connects to the idea of critical race theory because this theory already questions racism and inequalities in a variety of different institutions. Therefore, racism has been previously found in the police institution and it can still be traced back to the present day. Additionally, critical race theory presumes that law is an important factor that sanctions the hierarchy of class, race, and gender inequality. Consequently, the law as in the police system specifically in this event is forcing punishment that isn’t warranted. 

  • 1985– MOVE bombing (Philadelphia) 

    This event is where Philadephia police bombed the residency of the black liberation organization called MOVE on May 13, 1985. This fire caused 11 people including children to die. There were 65 homes that were destroyed as well due to this bombing. This bombing killed a lot of families and destroyed blocks of homes. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because I never heard about this event. I believe that something is flawed about the education system that doesn’t teach people about the United States bombing their own citizens essentially. This event is another example of how policing is targeting black people. Which this is spotlighting the main ideas of the critical race theory in confiding in the notion that there is racism present in multiple social structures. Policing social structure has a clear history of having racist motives and actions tied to their name. Therefore, critical race theory evaluates events such as this which are racist, and institutions that are built upon them. 

  • 1955 – Emmett Till is lynched in Mississippi in June; Rosa Parks sits at the front of a bus in Alabama on December 1, beginning the Montgomery Bus Boycott; MLK becomes leader

    There is a multitude of events that occurred within the year 1955. Some coin this year as the beginning of the civil rights movement. It is also a year of much injustice. Furthermore, Emmett Till was lynched in 1955 after being falsely accused of raping a white woman. This is also the year that Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat and move to the back of the bus. Here, Rosa Parks is seen as standing up for equality. Whereas Black people at this time were only able to sit at the back of the bus. She obeyed this and protested. She was determined to stand up for what she felt was right. Finally, the emergence of MLK was also during this time. Martin Luther King Jr. was the leader of the civil rights movement and an activist and priest who stood his ground and was determined to make a change within our society and for the lives of Black people. Now, this is a lot of information. However, it is all applicable to the current present today. Where critical race theory comes about. These events all connect to critical race theory as these were all events that show a clear rise of people who have been affected by racist institutions and them standing strong against them. Critical race theory emphasizes the important topics and beliefs that these people fought for and argued for. If it wasn’t for MLK or Rosa Parks, we may not have critical race theory today. We may have not even come close to the idea of critical race theory and its analysis existing today. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because for once, I was actually informed about Rosa Parks and MLK, and the activists of the civil rights movement. Of course, these are the two main people that are solely discussed. We often miss out on other great Black leaders – such as Malcolm X, The Black Panther Party, and other Black leaders that White individuals demonized.

  • 1954 – Brown vs. Board decision

    This event is a 1954 supreme court case that made segregation illegal in public education. This case also ended the ‘separate but equal’ racist decision that was previously in effect. The supreme court decided that racial segregation of children in schools violates the Equal Protection Clause in the Fourteenth Amendment. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it shows how even though this case has been passed, there is still segregation in schools today. However, since it is illegal to this day and it isn’t enforced through informal means, it is rather enforced through institutions in a sense or under-valuing homes. Whereas, if a black person moved to a predominantly white neighborhood, the white people would move out or make a big problem with the black person attempting to move there. In the end result, the community is segregated which leads to segregated schools. Another example would be the fact that some schools aren’t welcoming to other races if it’s not the predominance race that attends the school. How does this relate to critical race theory? Yet this is another institution that has inherent racism involved. Critical race theory analyzes racism in different institutions. Therefore, since segregation is still occurring today in schools and even in housing, critical race theory highlights these important inequalities. Furthermore, since critical race theory believes that people are bound by their particular social class due to a limitation in free agency, in a way this relates to how people of a specific social class are forced to be segregated in many different things such as school, areas of residency and careers, etc. 

  • 1931– Scottsbarren boys falsely accused of raping two white woman 

    This event is where nine young black men were falsely accused of raping two white women. This destroyed the lives of young black men. They were almost executed and they spent time in jail for a crime that they did not commit. These men were eventually freed but their lives were not the same. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because once again I was not informed about this event in my education experience. Events like these were only taught in African American classes therefore if you didn’t choose to take the class then you were not informed on important necessary information. I question the education system in the efforts of why events like these aren’t discussed or taught in regular instruction. This is an example of how the American criminal justice system has never worked in favor of African Americans. However, critical race theory specializes in racism in law and makes it of crucial importance to society. 

  • 1921– Bombing of black wallstreet 

    This event took place on June 1, 1921 in Tulsa, Oklahoma an area called black wallstreet was burned to the ground by bombs by white hatred mobs inspired by the Ku Klux Klan. This area was a successful business area that was black ran and it was one of the wealthiest all-black communities in the nation. Also, it was known for being a very prosperous black community in the early 1900s. It has been estimated that 300 black people died, 800 people were sent to the hospital and 10,000 people were left homeless due to this bombing. The bombing destroyed 600 various businesses in the community such as supermarkets, schools, libraries, banks, hospitals, churches, restaurants, and private airplanes. The Tulsa race riot of 1921 is what sparked off the bombing of black wallstreet. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because the educational system isn’t teaching these important events that need to be taught to the youth and highlighted so that people can be aware of past inequalities that are interconnecting to issues today. I was not informed about this event in an educational setting instead it was from social media. Critical race theory plays a role in this because white individuals have shown that they oftentimes result in violence to maintain inequality. Critical race theory analyzes this at both an individual and institutional level. 

  • 1896– Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court decides controversial “separate but equal” doctrine

    This occurrence is a supreme court case that was created on May 18, 1896. This case was a racist decision by the supreme court that allowed for segregation laws to be incorporated by local governments and states. The phrase ‘separate but equal’ comes from this case which means whites and blacks were separate but given the same equal ‘opportunities’ such as services and public facilities. In which, the equality that was given was at least required by the Equal Protection Clause. With this case being active and approved, this led to tons of segregation laws being enforced in many states and local governments throughout the country. It created a lot of unrefined legal and social treatment of black people. According to Cornell Law School, “Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children. The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law; for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to retard the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racially integrated school” (Cornell Law School). This quote is discussing the importance of how the law creates inequality. Specifically, in this situation, it is evident that the law of ‘separate but equal’ has made a clear path to inequality because why should a child who has the same qualifications or is the same age as another group be denied based on their skin color. Critical race theory synthesizes this very thing! Critical race theory assumes that law makes right for ranking of race, gender, and class inequality. The supreme court legitimized this law as a cover-up to oppress black people and believed that nothing was wrong with it. Additionally, this law was in place and active for 60 years. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because it exposes to me where segregation even began at. The fact that the case was open and active for 60 years until Brown vs Board happened is really profound. It makes me frustrated and sad at the same time that this is how society used to be. 

  • 1881 – Booker T. Washington established Tuskegee Institute

    This event is an educational institution that was established by Booker T. Washington in a one-room shack with a class that Washington taught about thirty students. This college has been at the center of African Americans’ favor.  It taught African Americans specific skills to assimilate into the workforce.  This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because if it wasn’t for determined leaders like Booker T Washington to pave a way for growth and experiences for African Americans back in the day, then in a way it wouldn’t be possible today. This is probably one of the first institutions that focussed on the experiences of African Americans that were in the United States to focus on success for individuals. In a sense, this allowed for the existence of concepts like critical race theory to come about just because of the simple fact that African Americans were allowed the opportunity to have their own educational institution. African American institutions soon followed the creation of this HBCU. It was through educational systems like that that the analysis that critical race theory gives was created. 

  • 1775-1783– Black soldiers fought in The Revolutionary war

    This event is where black soldiers fought on both sides of the revolutionary war. They fought on both the British side and the American side searching for freedom. This illustrates how African-Americans are at the very foundation of this country as they fought for its founding. Along with this, African-Americans literally built this country. This connects to critical race theory as it exhibits how the black experience is the American experience. Critical race theory should be a mainstay in the American curriculum as African Americans were at the foundation of the nation.  This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because the American education system is not teaching that African Americans were the glue that kept this country together. We are often taught that it was enslaving white men that built this country – when in reality it was the forced labor of Black individuals’ that built this country. 

  • 1706 – First police patrols at plantations to prevent runaway slaves, South Carolina

    This is the event where policing was invented. The very foundation of policing was to hold Black individuals down and oppress them. At the foundation of modern-day policing is racism. I say this because the very first police were tasked with capturing runaway individuals attempting to escape slavery. The police are an institution of upholding the status quo – that status quo is racism. If it was not for this event, then critical race theorists would not have much analysis of the institution of law. For example, policing and law are connected. If policing is built on racism, then the law is undoubtedly built on racism. Therefore, this event is essentially at the foundation of critical race theory. It is also evident how policing is inherently racist and still continues to show today in society. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because I never learned about this in school. This is a recurring theme. The racist history of this country is often not taught and overlooked. It is often not discussed in education. Especially since police brutality has been a mainstream topic within our society. We can never fully reconcile this country’s racist past till we fully learn and teach these important topics within our classrooms. 

  • 1619– Slave ship that came over

    In this year, Africans were kidnapped from the continents of Africa and brought to the Americas and traded for goods. They exploited them and forced them into indentured servantry to do labor such as growing tobacco, cotton, and rice. This connects to critical race theory as this is the beginning of the racial hierarchy within the Americans – later developing into the United States. Critical race theory establishes this analysis as this is the first moment that racism became a foundational aspect of the United States. This connects to critical race theory because this is where the injustices that African American face started. This event paved a way for critical race theorists to interpret racism. Though not a country at the time – it later obviously became the United States. This event contributes to my understanding of the present educational system because oftentimes the brutal history of slavery is sugarcoated. In other words, an inaccurate representation is given. For example, there have been textbooks found that give a different representation of what really happened. These have been found and called out by other Black people who were disappointed that their children were given inaccurate information. 

Works Cited

George Floyd is killed by a police officer, igniting historic protests, 25 May 2021, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/george-floyd-killed-by-police-officer. Accessed 9 May 2022.

LAPD officers beat Rodney King on camera, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/police-brutality-caught-on-video. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Brown v. Board of Education: Summary, Ruling & Impact – HISTORY, 11 January 2022, https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka. Accessed 9 May 2022.

“Bomb threats: FBI says 57 HBCU institutions and churches targeted since January.” The Tennessean, 23 February 2022, https://www.tennessean.com/story/news/american-south/2022/02/23/bomb-threats-hbcu-black-colleges-churches-targeted-fbi-investigation/6910491001/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Burr, Alyssa. “Critical Race theory isn’t taught in Michigan schools, so why is it such a hot topic?” MLive.com, 8 July 2021, https://www.mlive.com/public-interest/2021/07/critical-race-theory-isnt-taught-in-michigan-schools-so-why-is-it-such-a-hot-topic.html. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Campbell, Adina. “What is Black Lives Matter and what are the aims?” BBC, 13 June 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-53337780. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Fettig, Amy. “The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons.” The Sentencing Project, 13 October 2021, https://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/color-of-justice-racial-and-ethnic-disparity-in-state-prisons/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Fisher, Reve ‘. “The Real Story of the Destruction of Black Wall Street.” Black Then, 23 February 2022, https://blackthen.com/the-real-story-of-the-destruction-of-black-wall-street/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Momodu, Samuel. “The Charleston Church Massacre (2015) •.” Blackpast, 30 September 2017, https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/charleston-church-massacre-2015/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Schwartz, Sarah. “Map: Where Critical Race Theory Is Under Attack.” Education Week, 11 June 2021, https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/map-where-critical-race-theory-is-under-attack/2021/06. Accessed 9 May 2022.

“Separate But Equal | Wex | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute.” Legal Information Institute, https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/separate_but_equal. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Simon, Clea. “How COVID taught America about inequity in education.” Harvard Gazette, 9 July 2021, https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2021/07/how-covid-taught-america-about-inequity-in-education/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Strauss, Valerie. “Trump: Public schools teach kids to ‘hate their country.’” The Washington Post, 5 July 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/07/05/trumps-newest-assault-americas-public-schools-they-teach-kids-hate-their-country/. Accessed 9 May 2022.

Learning Experience #3 ED253 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 251- Learning Experience #3

March 24, 2022

My lived experiences connect with the theme of this assigned reading because as I read this reading I began to realize that I have experienced this firsthand. When I say that I have experienced this firsthand, I mean the fact that I attended a public school in elementary and middle school that was in a low socioeconomic area. It was very low funded and the environment reflected this. I didn’t fully understand the fact that some of the people who attended this school were in poverty. I actually don’t think that I knew much about poverty and what it even entails. Furthermore, over the years I always wondered why some people didn’t have access to certain things or the fact that they didn’t have specific things that I did. I never even knew the reason behind my school looking the way it did or operating the way that it did was due to the fact that it was low funded and under-resourced. The main themes of this assigned reading were how important poverty is and its effects on people who are in poverty. Additionally, the concept of how students in poverty need support from the education system. The author uses evidence such as references because at the end of this article they attached the reference pages that they used to present their information. Since the author did refer to other sources instead of just speaking from their opinion, this enhances the credibility of the speaker. Along with this, the author also uses numerical data to present their ideas. For example, according to the article, “In 2001, almost 12 million children in America, or 16% of children, lived below the official federal poverty line; almost half of those (a little more than 5 million and including nearly a million African American children) lived in extreme poverty (less than half the poverty line, or $7,400 in annual income for a family of three). These disturbing figures represent an increase of 17% in the number of children living in extreme poverty from 2000, the end of the economic ‘‘boom’’ (Cauthen & Lu, 2001, p. 3; Dillon, 2003, p. 3; Lu, 2003, pp. 1–2)” (Anyon, Jean, Greene, Kiersten). This quote shows how the author is not only referring to other sources for information but also including statistics as well to point out an important point. The author of this article has a political perspective because the whole idea of urban school reform is a political concept. What it would take for students to have the resources to thrive could be effectively accomplished through political means. My reflection regarding the reading such as the implications for schooling is that the educational system should offer more resources to families in poverty. In the assigned reading, the organization New Hope provided financial assistance, and the parents got free child care. This leads to the students being able to achieve better behavior and test scores in school. I think it is very important for students to feel like a place where they spend most of their time, which is where a school can be comfortable and safe for them. I know for a fact that when schools offer things like free or reduced lunch that it really can help students. Even just offering free after-school snacks to students can be beneficial to them as well. As some students may not have the financial access to food or snacks outside of school, if schools provide these types of things in schools it can reduce the effects of poverty. A specific theme in the reading that we decided to focus on is how poverty can affect students in many different ways. We felt like this theme was important to emphasize because as future educators we need to recognize that this is a crucial issue that is often overlooked or not addressed as much as it needs to be. Therefore, since we all striving to be future educators, we need to be aware and active in this as the problem needs to be addressed. We wanted our classmates to learn how kids in poverty struggle and do not have the same opportunities as kids in a higher social class. My contribution to the planning of this lesson plan was to create my slides which were the engaging question slides that we presented to the class. Also, we all worked collaboratively to figure out what activity we were going to use in our lesson to promote learning and creativity. We all decided on our learning objectives and the main theme that we wanted to emphasize to the class. My responsibilities when we were teaching the class were to read the slides that I created. Additionally, to facilitate the questions and the activity that we wanted our classmates to participate in for the day. The link to our google slide that we used to present our information is https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1TEcJCHiECTeN3XBW0UecWaCQqo9n-CHqhFykdXmqlB8/edit?usp=sharing.

Learning Experience #3 ED100 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 100- Learning Experience #3

March 24, 2022

The assigned reading was New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance, and hope during your first years in the classroom. There were several readings in this chapter of the book. The different readings were Moving Beyond the Classroom by Stan Karp, Q/A: As a new educator, why should I be concerned about school privatization?, School Funding Basics by Stan Karp, Why Teacher Unions Matter by Bob Peterson, New Teachers Energize Their Union: Count Us In! by Gabriel Tanglao. The reading Moving Beyond the Classroom was about how teachers can incorporate outside things into their classrooms for their students and how actions being performed outside the classroom is a positive thing. The next part of the section focuses on the idea of school privatization. What is school privatization? What comes with school privatization? Who is affected by school privatization and what can teachers and other supporters of public education do to stop school privatization? School privatization is policymakers trying to alter public education funds and students into private districts. It is trying to make a contract with private for-profit commodities for many accountabilities. Privatization jeopardizes the idea of public education and its purpose as an institution in our self-government. There are different types of schools which are public, voucher, and charter schools. There are differences between each of these schools listed above. This section specifically discusses vouchers and charter schools. Whereas voucher schools are private schools that have students who receive publicly funded vouchers that pay either full tuition or half of it.  Then, on the other hand, charter schools are funded and sanctioned by state law but they are privately being run. According to Q/A: As a new educator, why should I be concerned about school privatization? it states, “We must work with parents and communities to ensure that public schools are adequately and fairly funded. Affordable housing, healthcare for all, and living wage jobs are necessary so that our students and their families have the quality of life they deserve. As educators, we should insist that our unions, the single largest organized voice for working people in this nation, take up social justice issues and make them a reality. It’s up to us to take the next steps” (New Teacher Book). This quote is recognizing several problems that many people are facing to this day and provides a possible solution to ‘higher up people’ or just other resources that can strive to make a change. This next reading is about how schools aren’t getting fairly funded like how they should. Also, they are not receiving the resources that they need to provide educational programs as well. The idea is that lower funded schools aren’t meeting certain needs and criteria so they get money taken away from them. This leads to the lower funded schools having a difficult time trying to come up with the money. The section Why Teacher Unions Matter discusses the importance of a union. While also discussing the basics of unions and the idea of a social justice union. Then, it leads to the following question..why do teacher unions matter anyway? The answer to this question is teachers rally together to gain the support they need and appropriate funding to improve the education system. Finally, the section New Teachers Energize Their Union: Count Us In! is about how a teacher feels that they should not be the only person of color on the leadership board. Therefore this teacher and other co-workers work together to try to make a change. These readings are developed by teachers who are trying to ‘move behind the classroom’. In other words, the teachers are trying to be activists and use the opportunities around them for a positive outcome. I think the author wants to show that just because you are a new teacher or a first-year teacher that you have a voice and you can make a change. The point of view of these readings is a social justice perspective because they recognize the importance of equality and community for all. My learning circle decided to focus on school funding. We emphasized school funding because as we all project to be future educators, it is important to see and be aware of school funding. Also, to know how it can affect us and people in the environment as well. The design of our learning experience was to inform our classmates while including different discussion questions and a game to keep them engaged as much as possible. We used a google slide https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/16PUNTsdAxxswbBgaxJ9VP7hnZFOGuKXR-mA8ToBUl5Q/edit?usp=sharing to demonstrate our lesson to the class. My contribution to the design of the learning experience was to read my assigned slides and elaborate on them as much as I could to enable our classmates to understand the concept. Also, I had to come up with something engaging for the class so our lesson wouldn’t be all lecture-based. For the most part, the majority of the class was engaged in the lessons that we presented.

Comic Strip Assignment ED100 – Ayanna Lyons

This comic exhibits the time when I was in Mrs. Reese’s classroom where the students were instructed to pair with two-three other students to read a dialogue fluently to Mrs. Reese and I. After Mrs. Reese and I had a conversation about how the activity went for the students. Mrs. Reese asked, “How was the students doing in your group?” I said, “They were doing good for the most part. There were some words that they stumbled over but they would use a sounding out method to say the word.” Then she said, “Oh that’s good! I’ve been really trying to work with them with their reading skills and comprehension.”  I followed up with, “Yes, I see that they are still struggling with some things but they were very motivated to try to figure out certain words. Also, I see that they like to help each other out as well.” When I visited for another time in Mrs. Reese’s class, the students had to create a summary of the book Stone Fox but it had to be creative. We both worked with different groups to help them create what they were going to do for their summaries. It could have been a rap, a song, a dance or a play, etc. After each group or some individual students performed, Mrs. Reese asked me what I thought about the activity? I told her that I thought the activity was really good and that I loved how her activities are engaging and interactive. She said, “Yes, I try to stray away from teaching out of the textbooks as much as I can. Also, I know that these activities really help the students learn something versus worksheets, etc. I try to collaborate with the students in activities as well.” I told Mrs. Reese agreed and I literally just learned something similar. It’s called a ‘problem posing’ approach to learning. Mrs. Reese was intrigued that I made this connection! She then followed by saying. “Absolutely, each and every day I plan my lessons to be a problem-posing environment for the students.” I said, “Wow that is amazing.” Learned and analysed from freire2013banking, the problem-posing approach to education is an equal opportunity given to teachers and students. Which is a collaboration between teachers and students to produce a successful outcome. As mentioned previously, the idea of the problem-posing approach is very important to highlight which is evident in Mrs. Reese’s class. Whereas problem-posing involves students and teachers working together instead of the teacher doing all of the work and the student has no say whatsoever in their education. In Mrs. Reese’s class just following the clear example of the students being able to use their creativity to demonstrate a summary is using the problem-posing approach. Also, Mrs. Reese being a guide for the students to assist in their needs and wants with their thoughts and ideas for the activity is a problem-posing approach. 
This comic displays when I was at my field placement in Mrs. Reese’s third-grade class. This time while I was there, I was examining the poster boards that were on the walls and also paying close attention to the seating arrangements. The seating arrangement of the classroom is set up with the desks in groups. Also, there is a round table in the back of the classroom where groups of students can sit with the teacher or instructor. Other activities that Mrs. Reese incorporates in her class involves the students being able to sit on a piece of carpet while learning. In my head, while I was making this observation I thought about how engaging this classroom is for the students. There are many posters evident around the classroom while also being pleasant to the eye. While I was observing the many posters around the room, I was very intrigued by the colors of these posters and their content. There was one poster that said, “3rd-grade wall of fame”: While we all are striving to be better writers, it is important to acknowledge that everyone is at different stages in their writing. However, everyone’s successes should be celebrated regardless of their standpoint” (Mrs. Reese’s poster). When I read this poster I was instantly amazed by the content. I loved how Mrs. Reese is spreading positivity and giving students the opportunity to feel successful. Additionally, allowing for the students to feel good about themselves and their work correlates to a positive community and it also promotes more motivational learning as well. While discussing the idea of promoting positivity, a sense of community, and success for the students, it brings to mind the reading in the book The New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance, and hope during your first years in the classroom called 12 Suggestions for New Teachers by Larry Miller. Larry gives 12 different suggestions for new teachers to incorporate into their teaching—as they are new teachers trying to find a way that works for their students. The sixth suggestion that he gives is to build students’ confidence in their intelligence and creativity. He recognizes that everyone learns in different ways. Therefore, he finds daily examples of students’ work to talk about as intelligent and smart. He gives repeated examples of the unique work and views presented by the students which builds the students’ confidence just like what Mrs. Reese does with her poster board in her classroom.
This comic is shown when I was at my field placement in Mrs. Reese’s third-grade class. During this time, it was an hour before the students in her class have ‘Fun Friday’. Before the class had ‘Fun Friday’, she wanted the class to read a chapter in the book called Stone Fox. She asked the class to give me a brief summary of the book Stone Fox since I haven’t read or heard anything about the book. Before she wanted the students to give me a brief summary, she showed them a rap video about how to formulate short summaries. Also, she wrote on the board “Who, what, when, where, and why to give the students something to keep in mind while trying to figure out what summary they were going to say. Then, she told them that if they could give me a clear brief summary of the chapters that they read so far that everyone would receive a treat! They were instructed to write down on a piece of paper if needed during the time limit that they were given to think with a partner about what they were going to say. The students were very excited to tell me what their summaries were. I didn’t include this part in the comic but, at first, the students were giving long summaries with lots of details and I couldn’t grasp anything that they were saying. However, once a few more students went and gave me a specific clear summary I was able to recite what I was told by several students. Once I was told the class what I heard back from them, Mrs. Reese said that it was correct. Everyone began to cheer in excitement immediately after. I wasn’t able to include all of the students from the class in my comic but I did involve two of the students who were very enthusiastic to tell me their summary. This field observation connects with the work we’ve been doing in class by demonstrating the importance of having a communal learning experience. The students helped one another and wanted their other classmates to succeed along with them. Which most likely stemmed from the classroom being a community environment. According to the reading Creating Community Out of Chaos, They need a learning community where they feel safe to risk and dare and even fail. There is no shortcut to making that happen” (Linda Christensen). This learning community is demonstrated in Mrs. Reese’s class where everyone is trying their best to reach a common goal and along the way each student is helping each other out. Also, while not being afraid to take risks because it is a community, no one makes others feel uncomfortable or unwanted in their learning. Even though some students couldn’t tell me a brief summary of the book, others in the classroom helped them to try to figure out what to take out of their summary in order to make it shorter. 

Current Connection #3 ED100 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 100- Current Connection #3

April 11, 2022

The selected reading is called The New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance, and hope during your first years in the classroom pp. 26-49. There were multiple different stories within the assigned reading. The different stories were Time to Get Off the Testing Train by Stan Karp, 14 days SBAC Took Away by Moe Yonamine, Authentic Assessment for Learning and Testing Assumptions by Caudierre McKay, Aaron Regunberg, and Tim Shea. There were different themes presented in each of these readings. However, the main theme of all of these readings was the fact that high-stakes testing has numerous flaws to it. Such as, these tests do not reflect children’s current knowledge, a student’s ability is not measured by bubbling multiple choices answers and extended response questions, these tests are not beneficial to the students because they don’t correlate to a student’s personal life or factors in their life, the test fails to be objective, they are not good evaluation tools and they take up to much time in a school year or day. According to Time to Get Off the Testing Train, “Like weeds in a garden, the spread of testing is strangling the curriculum, narrowing the range of what is taught, and impoverishing school experience” (Stan Karp). There is a variety of students who need specific things rather than receiving worksheets and test prep. For example, a student may not be educated on racial issues but instead of giving this student information on race that can be very beneficial to their day to day life or even just in the future, they are given information on how to perform the process of elimination method on a high stakes test. Which, for an educator who is trying to successfully teach their students by the curriculum and/or knowledge about life that will be useful and applicable to them in time and at length, high stakes testing will take time away from this outlook. The reading 14 days SBAC Took Away states, “Fourteen days SBAC took away. We ended our year without returning to building community for our climate justice unit. We ended the year with a rushed celebration of each other. We could have been so much more. Fourteen days SBAC took away. Fourteen days I enforced SBAC testing to be the priority of our classroom learning— or rather, our classroom “unlearning.” Fourteen days SBAC took away” (Moe Yonamine). This is evident that high-stakes tests are preventing actual ‘learning’ from classrooms due to the attention being focused on things around testing. As also seen in the reading Testing Assumptions that even the volunteers who were senators, professors, state representatives, former nominees from the government, etc who participated in the ‘Take the Test’ event, 30 out of 50 volunteers did not meet the standard to pass the test. In relation to some of the flaws of the high-stakes tests, clearly these are some very highly skilled people and they couldn’t even pass. Therefore, how can you expect high school students to pass? In trying to shift away from these high stakes tests, there are many alternatives to high stakes testing that is mentioned in the reading Authentic Assessment for Learning. This reading discusses some common principles of authentic assessment for learning. In addition, there are some models of authentic assessment presented as well. All of these readings are developed by stating a problem which is high stakes testing and providing supporting details and evidence as to why and how these tests are flawed. Furthermore, to not only recognize that high stakes tests are flawed but to include some alternatives instead of these tests to implement within classrooms. The point of view of these readings is from the viewpoint of someone who has analyzed the idea of high-stakes testing being applied in classroom instruction. I personally think that high-stakes testing is not necessary. Only because of my first-hand experience, I think using an authentic assessment approach for learning really benefits and sticks with the students rather than test prepping because the information given from authentic assessments is more likely to be hands-on/ interactive and relatable to real-life experiences. Every time in class when it came to prepping for a test, nothing that we really learned even stuck with me. However, now with my experience in ED100 and ED253, I can fully understand topics and explore more of how my life may be connected to a certain topic or other factors that are happening in the world around me. The specific reading that I decided to focus on is Authentic Assessment for Learning. First things first, what is an authentic assessment for learning? It is the meeting point between evaluation and learning. In other words, an educator creates unique learning experiences for student performance, defines criteria for tasks, and produces a realistic rubric to track performance. As mentioned previously, in this reading we are informed about some common principles and models of authentic assessment for learning.  The current article that I chose to focus on in relation to this is called Cea calls for elimination of SBAC in Connecticut. The Connecticut Education Association leaders advocated to replace the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium tests with “better, more authentic and effective assessment programs.” CEA President Sheila Cohen said in a statement that testing is important to driving instructional improvement, but the SBAC takes “far too much time away from classroom instruction.” She also said, “It is time to put a stop to Connecticut’s singular focus on this unfair, high stakes, snapshot assessment as the basis for all critical decisions affecting our students” In a survey produced by CEA with a Wesleyan University professor, 90 percent of 1,666 participating teachers agreed that SBAC preparation takes away “significant time and resources” from teaching and learning. My current connection article connects with the assigned reading because the Connecticut Education Association is trying to implement authentic assessment learning in their schools to create a new era in public education. In other words, to provide the students with information and resources that will be beneficial to them in time and at length. 

Current Connection #3 ED253 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 253- Current Connection #3

April 11, 2022

The selected reading is called Native Americans: Deculturalization, Schooling, Globalization, and Inequality. One theme of this reading is the idea of globalization and deculturalization. Globalization is a global process of integration of governments, countries, people, cultures, ways of life, etc. Imperialism is one example used in the article to demonstrate globalization. The effects of globalization have been seen in the fact that indigenous people were forced to make cultural changes and their culture was completely removed. This leads to deculturalization, which is the destruction of a group’s culture that is then replaced by the dominating culture. Indigenous people in Canada, the US, South America, and Central America all have experienced deculturalization by the dominant group. A form of deculturalization of indigenous people occurred by forcing education upon them by the dominant group. This resulted in 1830 when The Indian removal act began. This act was Indians being forced to attend schools that destroyed their culture and language to ‘culturally transform’ them. There were children who were forced to leave their families to attend these schools, as schooling was seen as a way to ‘civilize’ Indians. According to the article it states, “McKenny considered the introduction of schools into Indian tribes as an ‘experiment’ in what I call ideological management” (spring2013deculturalization.pdf). To even think of forcing children to abandon their culture and families to ‘experiment’ on them is a very profound thing. Even thinking that sending them to schools to protect them from the evils in the world and to provide education and isolation to civilize them in one generation is very blue hearted. This assigned reading uses evidence such as citations in the notes section. Including a note section of the reading consisting of citations and references enhances the credibility of the author of this assigned reading. Also, the author makes a reference to Article 27 of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention where he says “1989 promises that education for indigenous peoples “shall be developed and implemented in cooperation with them to address their special needs, and shall incorporate their histories, their knowledge and technologies, their value systems and their further social, economic, and cultural aspirations” (spring2013deculturalization.pdf). Additionally, there was some numerical evidence that the author used such as “By 1838 only 2,000 of 17,000 Cherokees made the trip west. The remaining 15,000 did not seem to believe that they would be driven out of their country” (spring2013deculturalization.pdf). There was a cultural perspective in this assigned reading because the author clearly understands and acknowledges that what happened to Indigenous people was very wrong. In addition, the author shows a crystal clear emphatic feeling toward Indigenous people and their past. The specific part of this assigned reading that I decided to focus on is the idea of deculturalization of Indians. As mentioned previously, it stemmed from the 1830 Indian removal act where Indians were forced to leave their culture and families to attend boarding schools. The current article that I chose to make a direct connection to the assigned reading is called At University of Minnesota Morris campus, students demand search for Indian boarding school victims. In 2018, there was a sculpture that consisted of a mother and her son holding each other. The son looked like he was trying to hide behind his mother in fear and sadness due to the fact that he probably didn’t want to be taken away from his family. This sculpture was installed as a reminder of this site’s dark past. Before the Morris campus opened, a boarding school that separated Native American children from their families and forced them to assimilate into white culture took place in that very spot. An important quote from At University of Minnesota Morris campus, students demand search for Indian boarding school victims is, “Recent discoveries of mass graves at former boarding school sites in Canada have prompted Native American students at the Morris campus to demand a search at their school. More than 4,000 people signed a student-led petition this month in support of a Morris campus search, which they say is an essential step for the university to confront and heal from its history” (Faircloth, R). With the university taking the initiative to a potential search in association with tribal nations, this will lead to taking the emotional burden off Native American students because obviously, they are there for a degree but along with this, they probably are facing intergenerational trauma as well. After the closing of the boarding school in 1909 and the ownership that was switched to the state of Minnesota, there was a condition that Native Americans will be admitted to any future educational institutions tuition-free. In addition to this, this condition is still honored today by the university, the only university campus that offers tuition waivers to Native American students. In relation to the assigned reading, forcing a group of people to abandon their culture is deculturalization in its simplest form and its effects are still seen today with various native groups demanding justice for the forced abandonment of their culture that was thrust upon them. 


Faircloth, R. (2021, July 24). At University of Minnesota Morris campus, students demand search for Indian boarding school victims. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN).

Service Learning Experience ED253 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin


March 24, 2022

I volunteer at Seeds of Literacy which is a nonprofit organization that offers education to people who are trying to get a GED or a high school equivalent. Seeds of Literacy is located on the west side of Cleveland and the east side of Cleveland. The location on the east side of Cleveland is on Kinsman road. While the location on the west side of Cleveland is on W. 25th street. I volunteer at this organization every Monday during the times 6 pm-8 pm. From 6 pm-8 pm, I and other volunteers, staff members, and the students who attend Seeds of Literacy are joined together for a zoom meeting. At the beginning of this zoom meeting, one of the staff members marks everyone’s attendance and asks the students what they want to work on for the night. After, if the staff member doesn’t remember what a tutor is comfortable with working with, then they will ask them what they want to do. Furthermore, the staff member will create breakout rooms for a tutor and a student to work one on one learning through an assigned packet that the student is working on. The whole time is moving along with the packet with the student at their own pace. When I am tutoring, I always tell the students that whenever they want to take a break or stop just let me know because I don’t want the students to feel overwhelmed or pressured to complete something in a certain amount of time. I am involved in volunteering at Seeds of Literacy because it is a requirement for my ED 253 class. However, after being there and tutoring the students, I enjoy working with the different students that I encounter. After my service is over, I wouldn’t have any problem continuing my volunteer work at Seeds of Literacy because I feel good after leaving my session with the students. I feel like I am doing a good deed by using my ‘power’ to help others to reach their goals. What I have shared with the students that I tutor about my own lived experience is that I attend John Carroll University and that I volunteer there through my school. Also, I told a student that I was new to tutoring others and that I was nervous at first. I was nervous. After all, I don’t want to tell anyone the wrong answer because I simply don’t know it. Also, I don’t want to say the wrong things to students to make them feel offended or bad about themselves. Additionally, I shared with them that sometimes even now I struggle with certain concepts and topics as well so they shouldn’t feel bad when it comes to not understanding something the first time around because it’s normal. Relating this to freire2013banking, all tutors are taught to have a problem-posing approach rather than a banking concept approach. In other words, when we are tutoring the students we shouldn’t use our power to make the students feel bad or isolated. Therefore, it shouldn’t be the dynamic of ‘the tutor knows everything and the student knows nothing’ or ’the tutor talks and the student listens. This is something that comes with the banking concept approach and us tutors are encouraged to stay far away from this. All students should feel like their voice matters and that they can make decisions about their learning and not vice versa. Every time I tutor students, we work together collaboratively and even learn together. There have been times when I didn’t know the answer to a question and I wasn’t afraid to tell the student that I didn’t. This encouraged both of us to search on google to figure it out together which is a beautiful thing. Some of the students that I have encountered are all black people who are adults. All of the students that I have tutored had children of their own and they had jobs. I am sharing this service experience with them because I want to help them reach the goals that they have envisioned for themselves. I met with a lady named Rose who said she doesn’t even want to get a GED and she’s not there for that purpose. She said that she was there because she wants to teach her children how to read. When I was told this by Rose, I instantly felt amazed and hopeful. I felt amazed because I never even thought about anyone attending the program to help others. I would have assumed that a student would only attend for themselves. However, to attend to give what you have to someone else to better them is very profound. I felt hope from this situation because I see a lot of potential in Rose and I think that she can accomplish anything that she sets her mind to. When I am with students, we normally work on different reading packets because that’s the subject that I feel more comfortable tutoring. In these packets, there are a variety of different activities that are built into one lesson. For example, there are some vocabulary words to match, a passage to read with comprehension questions at the end, true or false questions, etc. I have encountered other students who want to receive a GED to get a better-paying job to take care of their families. I think that everyone who attends Seeds of Literacy has their reasons why they are attending which is very important to recognize. Some of the students have shared with me their lived experiences and backgrounds. One of the students told me that she was never book smart but they were ‘street smart’. She shared with me that she has four children and two of them are in college and the other two are in grade school. She mentioned to me that she could never raise them off book smarts but ‘street smarts’ were something that she always gave to them all the time. Now she decided that she wants to go back to school to get her education now along with her children. According to Why is service important? it says, “The action of service allows a person to think first about the needs of others and then to consider how he or she may be of help” (Bhattacharya, Karina). What I am learning about myself through service learning is that I actually really enjoy helping others and giving to others something I have an advantage over. It feels good to put someone else’s needs above mine for once actually! Something else that I am learning is that I am very privileged. I am privileged because a lot of people don’t have the access to the same resources or opportunities as me. A lot of people were not able to receive a high school education or diploma like me. There are some students that attend Seeds of Literacy who struggle with certain things that may come easy to me. The world around me, others in my school may or may not understand how important it is that we even got accepted to college. The fact that we are even able to afford the expenses of college is something crucial to acknowledge. The students who attend Seeds of Literacy are the ones who help me make these reflections about myself. Without the determination that the students bring when they arrive to learn, I don’t think I would be able to make this confession. I believe that with moving forward with life, I would want to continue volunteering at different organizations to continue to build relationships and grow with others. 

Learning Experience #2 ED253 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 251- Learning Experience #2

March 24, 2022

My lived experiences connect to the theme of the assigned reading because I have always experienced the banking concept my whole life until high school and am currently now in college. I never really understood or even recognized that I was experiencing a banking education approach. Also, it’s very mind-blowing and actually makes me feel puzzled thinking about what the teachers in my elementary and middle school used to do. I thought that what they were saying and doing was something that was ‘normal’. The fact that the teacher spoke and I listened, the teacher discipline and I was disciplined, the teacher knew everything and I knew nothing and the teacher thinks and I thought about, etc is very profound to think back to. The most engaging and student self-lead class that I have ever been in is ED 100 and ED 253 in college. Which surprises me and also makes me wonder why didn’t any of my other classes allow us to have a say in our learning and let us take the lead? The main themes from the author were the importance of not using the banking concept while it involves many problems and how to avoid the concept within a classroom. While highlighting the significance of problem-posing education. The author uses experiences such as lived experience by making a reference to a group that he was in. According to freire2013banking it states, “In one of our culture circles in Chile, the group was discussing (based on codification) the anthropological concept of culture. In the midst of discussion a peasant who by banking standards was completely ignorant said, “Now I see that without man there is no world” (Freire Paulo). This shows that he isn’t just speaking his opinion about the different topics that he discusses but to add on he is using a reference to enhance his credibility. There was a political perspective of the author of this assigned reading because the author emphasizes the importance of everyone being equal. For example, pushing toward problem-posing education is wanting the teachers and students to work collaboratively. Also, having a fair ‘right’ between both the teachers and students by allowing the students to have a say in their learning. Which, the author wants teachers to implement problem posing education instead of the banking concept in their classrooms. My reflection regarding the reading such as the implications for schooling is that education should always be approached as a problem-posing concept. I honestly feel like banking education should be against the law or rules of being an educator. I think that not one educator should be able to use their power and just run with it. Solely because from a teacher’s perspective that is the only thing that is an advantage of the banking concept besides that it degrades students and their learning. I know that when I become a future educator, I want to implement the problem-posing concept in my classroom because I can speak firsthand about the importance of the lesson structure and the environment. Every class that I have been in that has used the banking concept was absolutely boring and I felt like I didn’t really get anything out of it. Honestly, I can’t even really remember anything that I learned from any of these classes either. Kudos to the educators who don’t use the banking concept in their classroom instructions and setting. A specific theme in the reading that we decided to focus on is how to avoid the banking concept in the classroom. We felt like this theme was important to emphasize because as future teachers we should use the problem-posing education method. This allows students and teachers to work together to have a better understanding of what they are learning and gaining in the classroom. This is also the learning objective that we chose for our presentation because we wanted to inform our classmates about the two different concepts then allow them to make the distinction between both concepts. My contribution to the planning of the lesson was brainstorming what kind of game we were going to play. In other words, what we were going to do to encourage students to be engaged in our lesson. In conclusion, I decided to implement a game at the end of our lesson. I was responsible for facilitating the game to ensure clarity for the students to be able to play the game successfully. The link to our google slide that we used to present our information is https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1kHPF7yF6lTtNfQaVr7bMvqMNTPEbIwbjTOg4NHPkm9k/edit?usp=sharing.

Learning Experience #2 ED100 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 100- Learning Experience #2

March 24, 2022

The assigned reading was New Teacher Book: Finding purpose, balance, and hope during your first years in the classroom. The assigned reading was set up into multiple different stories into one chapter. The different readings were How Do I Stay in a Profession that Is Trying to Push Me Out? by John Terry, Dear White Teacher by Chrysanthius Lathan, Restorative Justice in the Classroom by Camila Arze Torres Goita, Q/A Section, and Girls Against Dress Codes by Lyn Mikel Brown. The reading How Do I Stay in a Profession that Is Trying to Push Me Out? was about a teacher who moved away from the norms and made the decision of doing what was right for him in his classroom. He wanted to rely more on the students’ experiences, passions, and knowledge. The teacher felt like no one could relate to what he was teaching besides other teachers. This made him determined to receive support from his colleagues. Along with this, he learned new inspiration for practices from his colleagues. Which made him feel like his lessons were valuable and this brought him joy. He eventually started meeting with his coworkers often to learn more strategies to incorporate in his classroom about human rights principles across grade levels and disciplines. The next section of the reading focuses on a black teacher being upset that the white teachers are sending their colored students to the black teachers to be disciplined rather than the white teachers disciplining them themselves. The same black teacher named Mrs. Lathan always got sent the same colored students from other white teachers and she always wondered why did the students always come to her for timeouts. The students answered by responding with things like, “Mrs. Lathan, you know they’re scared of us and our parents, too. That’s why they don’t be calling home. They just send us to you”, “It’s because they ain’t got no control of the classroom, Mrs. Lathan!”, “They send us here when they get tired of us”, “Only certain kids get sent out for doing the same things white kids do, maybe just a little louder or bolder, so we get caught” and “You talk to us like our moms and aunts; you expect us to do right and if we don’t, you make us tell our parents what we’re not doing” (the students in Mrs. Lathan’s timeouts). Furthermore, Mrs. Lathan was determined to figure out why the white teachers didn’t discipline the students, and based on conversations and observations with her colleagues she came to the conclusion that many white teachers are afraid that their good actions will be labeled as racist. Rather than the teachers facing their fear of being seen as racist, they rather pair students with teachers who sound or look like them in the name of having a positive role model. Additionally, many whites are discouraged thinking that they are ill-equipped to the needs of students of color because they don’t have the same experiences as those which leads to the teachers freezing. Mrs. Lathan says, “You must confront your own discomfort at all costs.” and “My strength in the classroom does not come from my racial identity, and neither does yours. It comes from the way we treat and what we expect from kids and families” (Mrs. Lathan). The next reading focuses on the root of acting out rather than concentrating on punishment and blame. The teacher in this reading wanted to build a community in her classroom to create a fun and safe space for everyone. This reading says, “restorative justice ultimately helps address both my classroom management and time issues while engaging students in learning; it also parallels a social justice curriculum that honors students’ voices and empowers them to act and make changes when they observe injustice” (Restorative Justice in the Classroom by Camila Arze Torres Goita). With this, the teacher incorporated in her classroom that the students sit in a circle to enable the students to feel seen and heard in the classroom. The Q/A section discusses the idea of discipline and restorative justice with alternative ways to punitive approaches. The last reading talks about the SPARK movement which is a girl-fueled activist project. These girls are a part of a movement of dress codes. The SPARK movement was led by two middle school girls who created the school’s first feminist group. The talk about dress codes and the SPARK movement influenced students to become an activist within their community. The girls said what would make a good dress code policy which was “Each dress code rule must have an explanation”, “A good dress code applies to everyone; there are no gender-specific rules, no double standards.”, “A good dress policy code addresses the realities of poverty and social class” (Students). These readings are developed by teachers who are learning and growing from their surroundings, striving to reach the goals that they envision.  I think the author wants to show that for first-year teachers or just new teachers in general there are going to be challenges that you may face in the beginning. However, there are ways to overcome these challenges that one may face. The point of view of these readings is a social justice perspective because they recognized the importance of equality and community for all. My learning circle decided to focus on restorative justice which is empowering students to resolve problems in small groups and own their own. We emphasized restorative justice because for us all being future educators it’s important to understand that there will be problems in your classroom. However, you have to know how to handle these situations the ‘correct’ way. The design of our learning experience was to inform our classmates while including different discussion questions to keep them engaged as much as possible. We used a google slide https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/11_K_Ft0Ab4qESoT0BPIXbiIjKxk2yByoX-tSwEH4nUA/edit?usp=sharing to present our lesson to the class. My contribution to the design of the learning experience was to read my assigned slides and elaborate on them as much as I could to enable our classmates to understand the concept. Additionally, it was my responsibility to create colorful pieces of paper for the class to write down their responses to the question that I presented. Also, when the groups were discussing within their groups, it was my responsibility to engage conversation with groups and make sure that they fully understood what each quote or question was saying. For the most part, the majority of the class was engaged in the lessons that we presented. 

Current Connection #2 ED253 – Ayanna Lyons

Ayanna Lyons

Dr. Shutkin

ED 253- Current Connection #2

March 3, 2022

The selected reading is called The Radical Supreme Court Decision at America Forgot. One theme of this article is the debate between desegregation and segregation. The case Green v. New Kent passed in 1968 on May 27th. This case made it where you can now choose what school you wanted to attend. Therefore, most people still decided to attend a school of their own race. For example, there are still all-black schools or all-white schools. Furthermore, you can attend either one of these schools if you are not in the predominantly race group of the school because it is illegal to deny someone. However, Segregation is still happening today in schools even though the Green v. New Kent case has been passed. According to the article, it states that ““Freedom of choice” placed the onus of integration on individual students and parents, who had to opt to cross the color line themselves, facing social stigma, and, in the case of black parents and children, enduring severe discrimination” (Stancil Will). This is something that is very evident even in today’s schools because some schools are not welcoming to different races. Which, can stem from the administration staff to the teachers or the students. From my own experience, I am black attending a predominantly white university and I have faced some discrimination so far. The discrimination that I have faced at the university has been mostly biased racism. In other words, certain topics are discussed and this leads to all eyes centering on me which makes me feel very uncomfortable. This is implicit bias in which someone doesn’t even realize that they are being racist. Unfortunately, this is something that black people and other races that are not white may have to face each and every day. This assigned reading uses evidence such as references because when it talks about how the Supreme court decided 5-4 to limit the federal courts’ power to desegregate schools in the suburbs, it also mentioned, “(There is evidence that Nixon had made some of his appointments— including future Chief Justice William Rehnquist—promise to oppose busing.)” (Stancil Will). Also, there was numerical evidence presented because the article mentions that, “The rural county, with a population of about 5,300, had previously operated two separate elementary schools, one for white children and one for black children. As the school board intended, the segregation of those schools survived the new choice-based plan: Only 15 percent of black children enrolled in the formerly white school. Predictably, not a single white child enrolled in the formerly black school” (Stancil Will). There was a political perspective of this assigned reading because it was a political decision that is talked about. In terms of what the article is focusing on it is more of a progressive view. This article does a good job by providing multiple effects of this decision. This article provides a clear overview of the culture that was created based on the supreme court decision. According to the article it says, “The most violent episodes of white resistance, like the infamous Boston busing riots, were limited, but they contributed to a political consensus that the Supreme Court’s integrative project was naive to racial realities” (Stancil Will). This quote shows how the article is providing a good culture analysis. The specific part in the assigned reading that I decided to focus on is the purpose of the supreme court decision. According to the article it says, “The Supreme Court was describing something more malevolent than mere racial classifications. It was recognizing the purpose of those classifications: to create a system of tiered education, akin to a caste hierarchy. And the Court was clear who was being targeted by that system: black students, who had been permanently relegated to an inferior role” (Stancil Will). Though the supreme court decision was supposed to fix the tiered hierarchy system and be a reparative process, it really didn’t succeed because today many schools are still segregated. Obviously, not legally but they are still segregated and resources are still distributed unequally. The current article that I decided to focus on is called Why U.S. Schools Are Still Segregated – And One Idea To Help Change That. An important quote from this article is, “Back in 1954, the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in schools was unconstitutional. But many would say that segregation in American schools is still very much a reality today…Your team found that predominantly white schools get $23 billion a year more than predominantly nonwhite schools” (Chang, Ailsa). Segregated schools are still a reality today. Just the fact that team researchers found that mostly white schools get 23 billion more a year than non-white schools says a lot within itself. This shows that there is still a clear racial separation in schools and still a clear racial hierarchy that the previous supreme court decision was supposed to solve but didn’t. 

Works Cited

Ailsa Chang. “Why U.S. Schools Are Still Segregated – And One Idea To Help Change That.” All Things Considered (NPR), July 2020. EBSCOhost, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nfh&AN=6XN2020070706&site=ehost-live.